Skip to content


Click on each reference to see the full citation.


D81: Dickson (1981) Deep-Sea Res. Pt A

Dickson, A. G. (1981). An exact definition of total alkalinity and a procedure for the estimation of alkalinity and total inorganic carbon from titration data. Deep Sea Research Part A. Oceanographic Research Papers 28(6), 609–623. doi:10.1016/0198-0149(81)90121-7.

DAA03: Dickson et al. (2003) Mar. Chem.

Dickson, A. G., Afghan, J. D., and Anderson, G. C. (2003). Reference materials for oceanic CO2 analysis: a method for the certification of total alkalinity. Marine Chemistry 80(2–3), 185–197. doi:10.1016/S0304-4203(02)00133-0.

DSC07: Dickson et al. (2007) 'Guide to Best Practices...'

Dickson, A. G., Sabine, C. L., and Christian, J. R. eds. (2007). Guide to Best Practices for Ocean CO2 Measurements. PICES Special Publication 3.


H15: Humphreys (2015) PhD thesis

Humphreys, M. P. (2015). "Calculating seawater total alkalinity from open-cell titration data using a modified Gran plot technique," in Measurements and Concepts in Marine Carbonate Chemistry (PhD Thesis, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, UK), 25–44.

HGP20: Humphreys et al. (2020) Zenodo

Humphreys, M. P., Gregor, L., Pierrot, D., van Heuven, S. M. A. C., Lewis, E. R., and Wallace, D. W. R. (2020). PyCO2SYS: marine carbonate system calculations in Python. Version 1.4.0. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.3744275.


MP81: Millero & Poisson (1981) Deep-Sea Res. Pt. A

Millero, F. J., and Poisson, A. (1981). International one-atmosphere equation of state of seawater. Deep-Sea Research Part A 28(6), 625–629. doi:10.1016/0198-0149(81)90122-9